"I never was worried about EGR, but I can see how the prospect of it scared people," said James Pirie, one of the presenters on "Troubleshooting '02 Engines" at the Technology & Maintenance Council's Fall 2004 Meeting. Pirie, application engineer for engineering customer relations with International...
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"I never was worried about EGR, but I can see how the prospect of it scared people," said James Pirie, one of the presenters on "Troubleshooting '02 Engines" at the Technology & Maintenance Council's Fall 2004 Meeting. Pirie, application engineer for engineering customer relations with International Truck and Engine Corporation, was addressing the widespread fear of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) that swept the industry before the '02 engines were introduced.
JAMES PIRIE, INTERNATIONAL TRUCK AND ENGINE
"Honestly, I think there was a lot of hype in the trade publications that said, 'Oh my goodness, the sky is falling,'" he said. "To be honest, there were a lot of concerns about meeting the emissions requirements, outside of the EGR concerns, but I think the whole thing was a non-event."
Pirie went on to address some troubleshooting issues that fleets have experienced with International's '02 I-6 and V-8 diesels.
According to Pirie, some customers experienced a problem with turbo vanes not operating properly in the electronic variable response turbocharger (EVRT), resulting in a low power fault code. While not "EGR-specific," this problem involved the EGR system nonetheless, because, in Pirie's words, "It is an enabler for EGR. It's related to the turbocharger, but the only reason the EVRT is there is because of EGR."
"When you have EGR you have to have something that drives the back pressure," he said. "We call it EVRT, but the generic name is VGT (variable geometry turbo). We use the turbocharger to drive the EGR, and that's unique for this year's engine."
"The common occurrence is something that prevents free vane movement," Pirie explained. "Some of the early turbochargers had a nitriding process concern, that allowed them to, in some failure modes, accumulate a sufficient amount of corrosion to bind the mechanism." Nitriding is a heat-treating process to the iron to improve its durability, but a secondary aspect is the corrosion inhibitor.
"So in essence," he went on, "our correction for this has been a process change to the nitriding, that allows this nitriding to prevent the low cycle or failure mode from occurring, by protecting against this corrosion. In the simplest terms, it's a scale inhibitor, or a corrosion inhibitor."
Another early problem involved low power or a power surge on the V8 engine, Pirie explained. "It's cumulative, based on sooting, but some of this is corrosion on the unison ring that was redesigned."
"There were some clearances that were involved in the redesign of the unison ring, the ring that you rotate that has little slots in it that adjust the vane positions. There are little tabs that go in those slots, and all they really did was increase the clearances on the tabs and slots to prevent binding."
A Hard Start fault was sometimes mistakenly traced to an open injector circuit, Pirie said.
"You're trying to fix a circuit problem when in fact your batteries are low, and your IDM-that's your injector drive module-voltage is low," he explained. "The IDM measures this by looking at voltage deltas and so forth, so, even though it's not EGR-related, it's more of a technician aid to just look at some of the other impacts to circuitry faults that can inadvertently set the IDM code.
"If the voltage falls below a certain threshold, there isn't sufficient voltage to drive the ejectors, and it will set an injector fault. I encourage technicians to look for things that could cause low voltage to be associated with certain injector faults. If you've got those codes from 421 through 428, just be sure that your starting and electrical system is in satisfactory condition and supplying sufficient voltage to the modules. Just because you get those codes it doesn't necessarily mean it has to be an open injector circuit; it could be low voltage getting to the module."
Pirie also pointed out that certain International vocational engines have experienced unique EGR-related problems.
Whatever happened to the '02 emissions 'train wreck?' After some early stumbles, the '02 engines have proven themselves to be relatively trouble-free.