The scan tool has sure come a long ways since 1980 when GM provided an Assembly Line Diagnostic Link (ALDL) as a means of checking onboard computer functions before the car rolled off the end of the line. Before long, the service industry quickly adopted this connector as an access point into the computer’s “mind” during vehicle service. The legacy of the scan tool was born.
Here, we take a look at some of the more notable functions that today’s tools offer, which can help prioritize the features you might want to investigate more thoroughly before making your next scan tool purchase.
First Things First
Before we discuss scan tool functions, it’s important to mention that fuel, ignition or mechanical problems can trigger trouble codes or other data presented on a scan tool. This is why you should always check the basics before getting carried away with what might, at first, seem to be a “mysterious problem.” This includes a visual inspection of vacuum hoses, battery cables, wiring and so on, including ground connections.
Retrieving Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) is the most common use for a scan tool. This is usually related to a condition where the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) is on. But code chasing has taken on other significance over the last 5 years as more states adopt OBD II checks instead of tailpipe testing for state emissions programs.
Although no one can argue the importance of DTCs and their interpretation, they’re simply an indicator of what’s wrong in a specific area, not the specific fault itself. Always remember that codes don’t tell the whole story - they’re simply a starting place.
In your quest for a scan tool, make sure you check out what kinds of codes can be displayed, as some only display generic OBD II codes, and may not give you all the detailed information you need.
System problems do not always manifest themselves as trouble codes, so just like life, diagnostics are not always black and white. This is where a scan tool’s ability to display serial data, or Parameter Identification Data (PID) comes in handy.
For instance, a vehicle may have a driveability problem that does not set a code, but there is an unmistakable performance problem. By taking a look into the heart and soul of the Powertrain Control Module (PCM), you can learn a lot about whether sensors and their operating ranges fall within specified values. Just as with codes, this type of information tells part of the story, but not all of it.
Mode 6 Data
Mode 6 is an emerging diagnostic mode built into OBD II that performs onboard monitoring of test results for non-continuously monitored systems.
Mode 6 data is live and unrecorded, so it can reveal a lot of real-time information about system faults like ignition misfire, fuel control and so on. Basically, this means that Mode 6 data can reveal a problem before it sets a DTC or lights the MIL.
Though helpful, Mode 6 data may not be available on all scan tools or vehicle systems. Ask your equipment rep whether the scan tool you’re considering can tap into Mode 6 data. Within the last several model years, the carmakers have boosted Mode 6 functionality, and the importance of its data.
On some vehicles, scan tools can perform actuator tests. This is where the tool tells the PCM to command an actuator, such as a relay or solenoid, to see whether it’s actually performing its task. These capabilities are also dependent on whether the vehicle manufacturer enables such testing in its system.
Historically, Chrysler has been strong in the use of an Actuator Test Mode (ATM) to check component operation. The main thing to identify is whether the scan tool you’re considering can command this functionality. Actuator testing is valuable because you can clearly see if the component in question is performing accordingly. As with other scan tool functions, actuator testing offers a piece of the puzzle, but not the entire solution.
Technical Editor Dave Cappert answers your questions about scan tools.
Not long ago, the scan tool was simply one of the tools you could use to help diagnose emissions problems. My, how times change.